Shadow Education And Social Class Inequalities In Secondary Education In Greece: The Case Of Teaching English As A Foreign Language
Keywords:social class inequalities, learning English, cultural and economic capital, shadow education.
This article deals with the shadow education system of private tutoring which contributes to the reproduction of social class inequalities, focusing on the Greek public secondary education system. It presents a literature review of the issue and the findings of an empirical qualitative and quantitative research that aimed at examining the causes of the students’ massive resort to private supplementary tutoring for learning the English language, despite the fact that English is taught at school. The study also set out to examine the relationship between students’ socioeconomic background and resort to private supplementary tutoring and the relationship between socioeconomic background and knowledge of the English language as attested by official certifications. Research findings indicate that the widely spread resort to private supplementary tutoring has a negative impact on the teaching of English in Greek public lower secondary education. Using Bourdieu’s cultural reproduction theory, we argue that private supplementary tutoring makes closer the relationship between social class, familial cultural and economic capital and educational outcomes. Thus, upper and middle-class students are at an advantage, since they can move to the labour market with valued educational qualifications that enhance their occupational prospects. Finally, we discuss educational measures to address the problem.
Addi-Raccah, A., & Dana, O. (2015). Private tutoring intensity in schools: a comparison between high and low socio-economic schools. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 25(3), 183-203. doi: 10.1080/09620214.2015.1069719
Ball, S. J., Bowe, R., & Gewirtz, S. (1996). School choice, social class and distinction: the realization of social advantage in education, Journal of Education Policy, 11(1), 89-112. doi: 10.1080/0268093960110105
Bourdieu, P. (2007). The forms of capital. In A. R. Sadovnik (Ed.), Sociology of Education. A Critical Reader (pp. 83-95). New York: Routledge.
Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. C. (1977). Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Bray, M. (2003). Adverse effects of private supplementary tutoring: Dimensions, implications and government responses. Paris. UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning.
Bray, M. (2007). The Shadow education system: private tutoring and its implications for planners (second edition). Paris. UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning.
Bray, M. (2009). Confronting the shadow education system: What government policies for what private tutoring?. UNESCO and International Institute for Educational Planning.
Bray, M. (2011). The Challenge of Shadow Education: Private tutoring and its implications for policy makers in the European Union. An independent report prepared for the European Commission by the NESSE network of experts: European Commission.
Bray, M., & Kwo, O. (2013). Behind the façade of fee-free education: shadow education and its implications for social justice. Oxford Review of Education, 39(4), 480-497. doi: 10.1080/03054985.2013.821852
Castells, M (2000). Toward a sociology of the network society. Contemporary Sociology, 29(5), 693-699.
Chan, C., & Bray, M. (2014). Marketized private tutoring as a supplement to regular schooling: Liberal Studies and the shadow sector in Hong Kong secondary education. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 46(3), 361-388. doi: 10.1080/00220272.2014.883553
Chen, W. and Wellman, B. (2005) Minding the Cyber-gap: the Internet and Social Inequality. In M. Romero and E. Margolis (Eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Inequalities. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing. doi: 10.1002/9780470996973.ch23
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge/ Falmer.
Council of Europe (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Council of Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Davies, S. (2004). School choice by default? Understanding the demand for private tutoring in Canada. American Journal of Education, 110(3), 233-55. doi: 10.1086/383073
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2011). The SAGE Handbook of qualitative research (4th ed.). Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Egerton, M. & Savage, M. (2000). Age stratification and class formation: a longitudinal study of the social mobility of young men and women 1971-1991, Work, Employment and Society, 14(1), 23-50.
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (2017). Key Data on Teaching Languages at School in Europe-2017 Edition. Eurydice Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union
European Council of Barcelona (2002). Presidency Conclusions. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/invest-in-research/pdf/download_en/barcelona_european_council.pdf
Foondun A. R. (1998). Private tuition: a comparison of tutoring practices in Mauritius and some Southeast Asian countries. Bangkok. UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office.
Fried-Booth, D., L. (2002). Project work (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Giamouridis, A., & Bagley, C. (2006). Policy, Politics, and Social Inequality in the Educational System of Greece. Journal of Modern Greek Studies, 24, 1-21. doi: 10.1353/mgs.2006.0004
Gouvias, D. (1998). The relation between unequal access to higher education and labour-market structure: the case of Greece. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 19(3), 305-334.
Haines, S. (1989). Projects for the EFL classroom: Resource material for teachers. Walton-on-Thames, UK: Nelson.
Heyneman, S. P. (2011). Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion. Peabody Journal of Education, 86(2), 183-188. doi: 10.1080/0161956X.2011.561662
Hobbs, G. (2016). Explaining social class inequalities in educational achievement in the UK: quantifying the contribution of social class differences in school ‘effectiveness’. Oxford Review of Education, 42(1), 16-35. doi: 10.1080/03054985.2015.1128889
Ireson, J., & Rushforth, K. (2005). Mapping and evaluating shadow education. ESRC Research Project RES-000-23-0117. Institute of Education, University of London.
Joynathsing, M., Mansoor, M., Nababsing, V., Pochun, M., & Selwyn, P. (1988). The private costs of education. Réduit. Mauritius.
Katsillis, J., Rubinson, R. (1990). Cultural Capital, Student-Achievement, and Educational Reproduction—the Case of Greece. American Sociological Review, 55(2), 270-279.
Kingston, P. W. (2001). The Unfulfilled Promise of Cultural Capital Theory. Sociology of Education 74, Extra Issue: Current of Thought: Sociology of Education at the Dawn of the 21st Century. Sociology of Education, 74, 88-99.
Kontogiannopoulou-Polydorides, G., Solomon, I., & Stamelos, G. (2000). Examining performance in Greek education. Athens. Metaichmio [in Greek].
Lamont, M., and Lareau, A. (1988). Cultural Capital: Allusions, Gaps and Glissandos in Recent Theoretical Developments. Sociological Theory, 6(2), 153-168.
Lareau, A. (1987). Social Class Differences in Family-School Relationships: The Importance of Cultural Capital. Sociology of Education, 60(2), 73-85.
Lynch, K., & Moran, M. (2006). Markets, schools and the convertibility of economic capital: the complex dynamics of class choice. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 27(2), 221-235. doi: 10.1080/01425690600556362
Manzon, M., & Areepattamannil, S. (2014) Shadow educations: mapping the global discourse. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(4), 389-402. doi:10.1080/02188791.2014.969194
Matsuoka, R. (2015). School socioeconomic compositional effect on shadow education participation: evidence from Japan. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 36(2), 270-290. doi: 10.1080/01425692.2013.820125
Mori, I., & Baker, D. (2010). The origin of universal shadow education: what the supplemental education phenomenon tells us about the postmodern institution of education. Asia Pacific Educational Review, 11,3 6-48. doi: 10.1007/s12564-009-9057-5
Mylonas, T. (1999). Reproduction of social classes through the school mechanisms: Secondary education in the village and the city (second edition). Athens: Gutenberg.
OECD (2011). Education at a glance, OECD indicators. OECD Publishing. doi: 10.1787/eag-2011-en
Pedagogical Institute (2008). Education and Quality in the Greek school: General research data and first findings. Athens: Pedagogical Institute [in Greek].
Pedagogical Institute (2012). National Curriculum for foreign languages. Athens. Pedagogical Institute [in Greek].
Peters, M., Carpenter, H., & Edwards, G. (2009). Private tuition- survey of parents and carers. BMRB Social Research.
Reay, D. (2001). Finding or losing yourself?: working-class relationships to education. Journal of Education Policy, 16(4), 333-346. doi:
Reese, S. (2011). Differentiation in the Language Classroom: How do you support every learner?. The Language Educator, 6(4), 40-46.
Silova, I., Budiene, V. & Bray, M. (eds) (2006). Education in a Hidden Marketplace: Monitoring of Private Tutoring. New York, NY: Open Society Institute.
Smyth, E. (2009). Buying your way into college? Private tuition and the transition to higher education in Ireland. Oxford Review of Education, 35(1), 1-22. doi: 10.1080/03054980801981426
Stoller, F. (2006). Establishing a theoretical foundation for project-based learning in second and foreign language contexts. In Beckett, G., H. & P. C. Miller (Eds.), Project-Based Second and Foreign Language education: past, present, and future (pp. 19-40). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.
Tanner, E., Day, N., Tennant, R., Turczuk, O., Ireson, J., Rushforth, K., & Smith, K. (2009). Private Tuition in England. Research Report DCSF-RR081. National Centre for Social Research.
Theisen, T. (2002). Differentiated instruction in the foreign language classroom: Meeting the diverse needs of all learners. LOTE CED Communiqué, 6. Retrieved from https://www.sedl.org/loteced/communique/n06.pdf
Tomlinson, C. (1995). Differentiating instruction for advanced learners in the mixed-ability middle school classroom.Reston, VA.: ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children. (ERIC ED389141).
Tomlinson, C. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Ventura, A., & Jang, S. (2010). Private tutoring through the internet: Globalization and offshoring. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11, 59-doi: 10.1007/s12564-009-9065-5
Whitty, G. (2001). Education, social class and social exclusion. Journal of Education Policy, 16(4), 287-295. doi: 10.1080/02680930110054308
Zhang, W. (2014). The demand for shadow education in China: mainstream teachers and power relations. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(4), 436-454. doi: 10.1080/02188791.2014.960798.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 ENDLESS: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FUTURE STUDIES
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.